Research: Landscape Artists

There are so many landscape artists that this research point became almost overwhelming.  I therefore decided to provide a brief overview in this post on the named artists in the course manual plus other artists whose work I have recently seen in exhibitions.  I will then pick a couple of artists whose work I find interesting to research further in later posts.

Durer’s (1471-1528) landscapes are the earliest surviving examples in Western art of pure landscape studies.  During a journey through the Alps in 1494-5 he recorded a series of topographical watercolours; these studies were then often used in this later etchings and woodcuts, for which he is probably better known.

Durer, Study of a Rock-Face in a Quarry near Nuremberg c 1495-6.

Whilst Claude Lorraine (c 1600-82) lived prior to the Romantic period his landscapes to me have that idealised, romantic, pastoral feel.  Figures are often present in his landscapes and the peasants have that clean, happy, contented feel which is probably far removed from the actual reality of often living in poverty with poor working conditions. Whilst I can admired the technical ability in his landscapes the works themselves do not really engaged me as the viewer; perhaps they are just too far removed from my own interests.

Lorrain, Claude, 1604-1682; Landscape with a Goatherd
Lorraine, Landscape with a Goatherd, 1635-36

As landscape as a genre in itself becomes established, there is a proliferation of artists working in this field.  JMW Turner (1775-1851), John Constable (1776-1837), Thomas Girtin (1775-1802) to name just a few.

Perhaps one of my favourites painters of this period is Samuel Palmer (1805-1881).  It is the fairytale, mystical quality which his drawings and paintings process that I find intriguing;  I can look at some of his images for a long time and keep finding new things.  Also his range of mark making and the stylised quality of this forms draws me into the images.  This stylised form recurs in later landscapes I have seen by artists such as Paul Nash (e.g. The Falling Stars, 1912 and Landscape of the Vernal Equinox (III), 1944) and even Grant Wood (e.g. Young Corn, 1931).

Palmer, Early Morning, 1825.

I recently visited the Van Gogh museum in Amsterdam and his landscapes moved away from depicting the ideal to depicting reality as he saw it.  I particularly admire the mark-making in his drawings and his ability to show the ordinary as a subject worthy of drawing or painting.

Carpenter's workshop, seen from the artist's studio window, 1882 blog
Van Gogh, Carpenter’s workshop, seen from the artist’s studio window, 1882.

Georgia O’Keeffe (1887-1986) is probably best known for her close-ups of flowers, however, it is her landscape which I enjoy.  Her ability to take a panoramic view and just put the essence of the shapes and colours into the image without it being distracted by detail is something I would like to achieve in my drawings; the shapes in many of her landscape take on animal or human form.

O’Keeffe, Purple Hills No. II, 1934

L.S. Lowry (1887-1976) is a painter whose paintings I know well but actually know very little about the artist.  I grew up seeing Lowry’s pictures on television and knew the associated phrase (wrong in my view) ‘matchstick men and matchstick cats and dogs’, later made into a pop song.  Lowry painted the industrial north and the associated houses and landscapes.  I have never been that struck by his paintings as I found them a bit of a ‘variation on the theme of’.  However, on looking closer at his paintings one of the things I gain from the images is the depth of field he creates in some of the images by having a strong fore, middle and background, whilst using aerial perspective to fade away the background.

Lowry, The Football Match, 1949

I went to the recent Paul Nash exhibition at the Tate (see post here) and have always been drawn to his early images of trees (e.g. The Three in the Night, 1913 and Tree Group 1913) and also his depictions of the battle fields of World War 1 (e.g. We Are Making a New World, 1918).  At the exhibition I found the landscapes whilst he lived at Dymchurch fascinating.   Perhaps it is because this is very familiar territory to me that I was drawn to these images but what I particularly liked was the strong graphic nature of the paintings with very little detail, highlighting for me the isolation of the individual in a vast expanse of the landscape and man’s need to control nature.

Nash, The Shore, 1923

Grant Wood (1891-1942) is probably best known for his painting American Gothic which I recently saw at the Royal Academy exhibition, America after the Fall.  However, he also painting landscapes using stylised forms (as indicated previously) and it is these which I found interesting.  In many ways they do not show the poverty and problems of the depression of the time but rather a sanitized version of reality.

Wood, Young Corn, 1931.

John Piper (1903-92) is another artist I have always felt drawn towards for his often dark depictions of buildings, such as The Gatehouse, Knole, 1942.  What I was less aware of were his depictions of the wider landscape, such as Tryan Mountain, 1950 and his move towards abstraction, such as House at Niton.

Seaton Delaval 1941 by John Piper 1903-1992
Piper, Seaton Delaval, 1941

I came across Barbara Rae (b 1943) a few years ago and what struck me in her paintings was her ability to take a landscape (sometimes focusing in on one small part) and convey the mood she feels when painting the image.  She creates the drama she sees in the landscape with vivid colours and abstract strokes; getting away from representation is something I struggle with, so I admire artists who can do achieve this style.

Rae, Blue Fence

George Shaw (b 1966) is not an artist I was aware of before undertaking this research.  His early paintings of the estate where he grew up remind me of my own upbringing on a council estate.  He paints the ordinary houses, garages and other buildings which were as familiar to him as the London churches and squares where familiar to JMW Turner.  I really like the absence of people and for me the way his images, rather than conveying a harshness and brutality, convey a warmth, understanding and sympathy with the surroundings.

Scenes from the Passion: Late 2002 by George Shaw born 1966
Shaw, Scenes from the Passion: Late, 2002

Sarah Woodfine (b 1968) creates drawings mixing the real and the imaginary.  She uses optical illusions and puts the drawings into a three-dimensional space to create a fantasy environment; this seems to come from her training as a sculptor.  I have never thought about cutting up drawings and creating in effect mini-theatrical scenes.  Something I might try in the future.

Woodfine, Somewhere, 2007



Assignment 2: Reflection Against Assessment Criteria

Demonstration of Technical and Visual Skills
Materials, techniques, observational skills, visual awareness, design and compositional skills

During this unit I have again experimented with a range of materials and techniques. I mainly drew in black and white prior to commencing this course and so during this unit have tried to use colour in a variety of different mediums (where appropriate). I have used collage in an exercise and a mixed medium approach in my second assignment,

I have started to sketch more and have found that rather than using small pages I am better at using A3 paper. This stops in being so tight in my drawings and I am slowly getting over that fear of sketching in public. I continue to use loose sheets for sketching which I attach to an A3 Drawing Board. I have started Life Drawing Classes and this is developing my observational skills and visual awareness.

Quality of Outcome
Content, application of knowledge, presentation of work in a coherent manner, with discernment

I am very satisfied with second assignment outcome. I have pushed myself to make a mixed media drawing, in a larger format I would normally attempt. I like the composition of the image, the colour range and the different mark making in the drawing, from the smooth of the steel frame to the freer, more gestural marks in the vegetation.

Demonstration of Creativity
Imagination, experimentation, invention, personal voice

Throughout this unit and in my assignment submission I have struggled with the still-life genre. I have therefore tried to think beyond the usual coffee-pot type images and engage with a subject matter/idea which interests me, as well as fitting the criteria for the unit. In this way I think I may start to develop my personal voice more. However, in many ways I wonder if I have over-thought the unit and should have just done the exercises using the normal suspects as my subject matter?

In this unit I have also tried to concentrate more on the final image which portrays my idea rather than it be more about the process of making the drawing. This was a deliberate move on my part as I am trying to discover which camp (if any or both) the making of my art and my interest lies. Perhaps it is too early to look at either?

Reflection, research

I have visited exhibitions, Study Days and undertaken a number of areas of research and then experimented with what I have discovered. I need to develop my academic writing more and to write more on what I am discovering. I still struggle with the on-line blog and am keeping exhibition and some other research notes in hard copy with a brief summary entry on my on-line learning log. I am hoping this will develop into more of a visual diary, learning log and sketchbook combined so that it is easier to look at some form of cross-fertilisation of ideas. As this is my first Level 1 course I think it is the ideal time to find the right format for me.

Research: Dadaism

‘Before Dada was there, there was Dada’.

Dada is a movement which in many ways defies a definition.  There seems to be no one unifying force (apart from there is no unifying force), no one group behind the movement, with many manifestos published.  Indeed, it seems to have grown up across slightly different time frames during the early twentieth century, in different cities.  It also crossed a number of different disciplines, although much of the work eventually became concentrated in the literary and visual arts spheres.

One of the elements I found interesting for my own drawings were the sound poems of Hugo Bell.  In these he dissected the words into individual phonetic syllables and recombined them, thus taking meaning away from the language and creating a new sound picture.  I wondered if the same could be done with one of my drawings – cutting it up and then recombining it to take away the original visual meaning and thus creating a drawing.  I thought I might try this out in a future drawing.  In many ways is this similar to Rauschenberg erasing a de Kooning drawing?

I have mixed reactions to the Dada images.  Some are humorous, some visually engaging (some not), some the idea is intriguing whilst others it is the final image that is intriguing.  As with most art, the more you look and gain an understanding the more you can engage with the image.

Research: Henry Moore

Due my feedback from Assignment One my tutor asked me to research the drawings of Henry Moore.  I choose to mainly concentrate at this stage on his World War II Shelter Drawings as I have always admired these drawings.  After seeing a couple of the original drawings at Tate Britain and Pallant House Gallery and also reading a couple of books on Moore, I made notes in my sketchbook.

At the same time I have just visited Herculaneum, Italy and decided that the skeletons in the Boat Sheds looked like the people in the Shelter Drawings so decided to try a couple of drawings in the style of Moore using pencil, pen & ink, wax crayon and a watercolour wash.  .  The last two drawings are of two people having lunch at Borough Market, the first just the pen & ink outline with the second adding wax resist and a watercolour wash.

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Research: The Still Life Genre

The Still Life genre (from the Dutch Stil Leven) has been defined as images of inanimate objects; however, this definition is loosely applied, as even in early works, images of insects, etc., were included.

The earliest known still life paintings are Roman murals called xenia paintings (gifts for guests).  As in the image below the light is from the left (a convention largely maintained throughout the history of the genre); the objects are arranged on steps (a common Roman devise); the complementaries red and green are predominant; and there is a simple depiction of the transparency of the water jug.  The image has a somewhat modern feel about it.

Still Life with Peaches and Water Jug, from insult IV, House of Stags, Herculaneum, c 41-68AD

Some of these compositional devises are repeated in the next image below which again is lit from the left and objects are arranged on steps.  Of course, the original purpose of this image may have been a trade sign for a money lender as it depicts bags of coins and writing materials but it is now considered a work of art.  This brings into focus the changing purpose and use of images.

Fresno from a tablinum, Praedia of Julia Felix, Pompeii

There is a long gap then in the history of the genre as religious art dominants with still life motifs appearing only in larger images.

A significant image in the history of this genre appears in 1596, painted by Caravaggio.

Caravaggio, Basket of Fruit, 1596.

Much has been written about the symbolism within this painting.  The decaying and imperfect fruit representing life, death and resurrection; the apples referencing Adam and Eve.  Whilst symbolism was more important at the time this was was painted I wonder if Caravaggio had this in mind when painting the image or was he just painting a basket of fruit, some of which were imperfect?  Was the symbolism applied after the painting was finished to fit the painting into the predominate religious genre once it was donated to the church, or by an art critic to validate their knowledge, or to increase the status or value of the painting.  In many ways does it matter, as today art is about what the viewer takes from the image and therefore all views are valid.  What I find interesting about this painting is the vivid yellow background and the way the basket is sitting right of the edge of the table; it is if the basket is going to fall into the room of the viewer.

In the 17th century we enter the ‘Golden Age’ of Still Life painting, particularly from Dutch painters.

William Heda, Still Life, 1637

These paintings mainly display the wealth and processions of the newly emerging traders and in many ways set the general composition rules for this genre which are followed throughout the 17th and 18th century – glass and metal containers of various kinds and/or other foodstuffs placed on a table; or arrangements of flowers.

Jean Baptiste-Simeon Chardin, Still Life with Game, c 1760/65

Of course, there are always exceptions to the rules.

Francisco Zubbaran, Still Life, c 1630

It is in the 19th century that still life for me starts to become a bit more interesting as we move away from the formal displays of wealth and start to see depictions of more ordinary interiors.

Edouard Manet, Still Life with Melon and Peaches, c 1866

I find the limited range of colours interesting, with the yellow present in the lemons, melon, the grapes and the background.  I also like the high contrast between the white and dark tablecloths which leads my eye up to the objects on the table.

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Cezanne said ‘I should like to astonish Paris with an apple’.  In the above two images I like the expressive brushstrokes and the way he uses colours across the image to unite the paintings.  In Vessels, Basket & Fruit (the Kitchen Table) it is interesting how he moves out from a pure table view to a more semi-interior view including a chair and worktop in the painting.

Gauguin, The Ham, 1889

I like the simplicity of the ham and glass on a small metal table against the bold stripe background.

Matisse, Still Life with Blue Tablecloth, 1905-06

The objects in the still life by Matisse seem to wrestle for attention with the bold pattern of the blue and white tablecloth.  I especially like the bold strokes where only one or two brush marks define the form of the objects and also the almost abstract background.

Kandinsky, Interior (My Dining Room), 1909

This very colourful work by Kandinsky remains me of a number of paintings by Matisse.  I think it is many different patterns within the image – the table cloth, the wallpaper, the wood effect of the cupboard, etc.  (Matisse used a lot of patterned textiles in his paintings).

Braque, Still Life with Tenora, 1913

This paper collage features a tenor, which is a Catalan instrument similar to an oboe.  The tenor is drawn in charcoal around the collaged paper.  I was drawn to this image, partly because is marks the start of the break from representation and also because of the subject matter which has echoes of my drawings of my clarinet.

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I choose the three Picasso images as for me they indicate the changing style of the artist.  Still Life: Bowl and Apples take a female form with bold strong flat shapes; whilst in Guitar, Compote Dish and Grapes the line is fragmented and pattern is used in an interesting manner to both bisect and unite the elements; in The Enamel Saucepan the objects become more easily recognised whilst retaining fragmented shapes.

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Paul Klee is one of my favourite artists.  In all these images I especially like the simple geometric shapes and bold use of colour to define the objects.  In Still Life with Plants and a Window, the simple shapes define the flowers and leaves of the plant, similar simple shapes define the curtain at the window with a three-quarter moon in the sky.

Morandi, Still Life with Violet Objects, 1937

Still Life dominates the output of Morandi.

Bonnard, The Red Cupboard, 1939

This Bonnard caught my eye for a number of reasons – the predominate red colour scheme, the view of an interior of a cupboard and the fact that it looks like it was an existing view rather than the objects having been arranged.

Nicholson, July 22-47 (sill-life Odyssey), 1947

It is difficult to see what the objects are in this Ben Nicholson painting but the fragmented nature of the image certainly shows the influence of cubism on art even as late as the 1940s.

Pop art and still life.

Hockney, A Realistic Still Life, 1965

I find the title of this still life by Hockney quite interesting.  The use of tone on the pile of cylinders and acting as shadows for the three blocks at the front do add shape to the forms and make them seem more realistic; although, I do not understand the leaf-like elements acting as a frame.

Richter, 4.6.1999 (99/45), 1999

This picture of a tea mug which looks like it is on the floor near a corner of the room is interesting to me as it shows the gestural marks of the pencil and also includes long strokes of an eraser across the paper.


My look at the still life genre has increased my appreciation and knowledge.  It has also made me realise that whilst my default is to be quite detailed and realistic in my own artwork, the artwork I look at and admire in others is much more gestural in nature and tends to include strong elements of pattern.  In my feedback for assignment one my tutor mentioned that students often make work for their ‘teacher’ – this and researching still-life has made me think that subconsciously perhaps I am making work for others rather than myself?  Something to think about as I move forwards through this unit.

I will do further research specifically looking at drawing and still-life later in this unit.

Reflection Against Assessment Criteria

Demonstration of Technical and Visual Skills 

Materials, techniques, observational skills, visual awareness, design and compositional skills

I have experimented with materials and techniques in this assignment and the final submission is outside my safe zone, however, I recognise I need to expand experimentation even further.  I have tried to be creative in not just submitting a drawing of the visual appearance of the objects but instead have used the still-life set-up to spark thoughts about what are the important aspects of playing a clarinet.  My biggest issue in visual awareness has been keeping a sketchbook as I find they intimidate me and I therefore sketch on individual pieces of paper.  However, as my confidence has grown during Unit 1 and I have realised it is not about making a ’perfect’ drawing, I have decided to take the plunge and start keeping a couple of different sized sketchbooks and draw in them much more often, which should improve my visual awareness and composition skills.

Quality of Outcome

Content, application of knowledge, presentation of work in a coherent manner, with discernment

The quality of the outcome is not as high as I would have liked.  I struggled with using some of the techniques which I am not used to, such as collage, and this had a knock-on effect on the quality of the final image.  Also, I have tried to avoid my tendency to produce a ‘perfect’ drawing so have deliberately not kept re-drawing the images in order to achieve this aim and therefore hopefully have kept in more of ‘me’.   I think I needed to greatly expand the preparation stages for the assignment to explore different composition, techniques, etc before deciding on my final submission piece.

Demonstration of Creativity

Imagination, experimentation, invention, personal voice

In this assessment I started with depicting the visual appearance of the objects before moving onto making a Surrealist inspired landscape.  Before starting this course this is an area I never would have even considered (I drew mainly from photographs prior to starting this course) so I do feel I am trying to use my imagination and be experimental in both the exercises and the final submission piece.  At this stage in the course I am not sure what my personal voice is so hopefully by working my way through the course I will start to discover this aspect.  I want to be open to new processes, ideas, and styles etc., in order to develop as an artist rather than use the course to validate an existing point of view.


Reflection, research

I have a tendency to over analyse and be very self critical of my work leading to a loss in confidence and have tried to avoid this.  However, in reviewing my posts I realise I have probably not got the balance right and need to write more, both about the process and reflection on the outcome.  I come from a science and business background so find it difficult to write about a creative process as I tend to be too concise and matter of fact.  I have started to read the books and attended a number of exhibitions.  However, I have struggled with writing these up on my on-line learning log; it is format I do not particularly like or find interesting.  I have therefore decided that, whilst I will keep the on-line learning log to show my process against the exercises and the assignments, from the commencement of Unit 2 I will also keep a hard physical learning log to keep a record of research, exhibitions etc as I will be able to include my notes, annotate postcards/photographs, etc and hopefully be more creative in how I respond to both research and my own work.